Naloxone and naltrexone are pure opiate receptor blockers.
Naloxone is used to restore self-breathing during opioid overdose. It is administered parenterally, selecting the dose in such a way as to ensure the safety of protective respiratory reflexes and normal ventilation.
Naltrexone is taken internally. It is prescribed for the abolition of opioids during detoxification and at the stage of abstinence, and as an additional remedy for alcohol abolition.
Naloxone and Naltrexone block all types of opiate receptors without possessing stimulatory properties.
The first to do in opioid dependence is to carry out detoxification, and then try to achieve prolonged complete abstinence or prescribe substitution therapy with methadone or buprenorphine. At the stage of abstinence, you can also use any opiate receptor blocker, but naltrexone is advised, since it is absorbed when taken orally, and has a longer action than naloxone.
Careful observation is necessary, since it is possible to resume opioids and re-oppress respiration. In these cases, repeated doses of opioid receptor blockers or intravenous administration with subsequent infusion are prescribed.
The duration of action of naltrexone at a dose of 150 mg for oral administration is usually 72 hours. In most cases, this is enough to stop the effect of opioids.
How Does Naloxone Work?
Naloxone, also known under the brand name "Narcan", is a safe and effective drug that removes a person from the state of opioid overdose. Naloxone binds to the same brain receptors as heroin and other opioids, displaces and blocks opioids for 30-90 minutes, thereby helping to restore breathing, the oppression of which usually leads to death from an overdose.
Does Naloxone Help Only In Cases Of Opioid Overdose?
Yes. Naloxone is effective only in cases of overdose caused by the use of opioids, such as heroin, methadone, morphine, opium, codeine or hydrocodone. Naloxone can not eliminate the effects of other drugs, such as benzodiazepines (including diazepam, midazolam or alprazolam), antihistamines (eg, phenyramine or phenergan), alcohol or other sedatives (eg, phenobarbital), as well as stimulants, including cocaine and amphetamines.
However, if a person does not breathe, the use of naloxone does not hurt. if there was an opioid use, then most likely the person will start breathing again, although he may still be under the influence of other drugs. many overdoses are due to the mixing of opioids with other drugs, which is a very common practice.
Can I Get A "Buzz" From Naloxone?
No. The only effect of naloxone is the elimination of the effects of opioids. It is impossible to get a "buzz" from naloxone: if you do not use opioids, the sensation of naloxone injection will be the same as the injection of water. Naloxone has no potential for abuse or dependence.
Are Naloxone And Naltrexone The Same?
No. Naltrexone is similar to naloxone, but its duration time is much longer: usually about 24 hours. Naltrexone is sometimes used in the treatment of drug or alcohol dependence.
In some cases, a combination of naloxone with buprenorphine is used. It is known under the brand name "suboxon", and is used to treat drug dependence. Naloxone is added to prevent the injection of buprenorphine.